The assembly of the sniper rifle has undergone significant changes over the past decade. Modern technology has influenced all the materials and parts of the sniper rifle. Strength, the ability to customize to your parameters, modification in the field, an increase in the firing range, and the use of a wide range of ammunition have become standard requirements for modern sniper weapons. The most technologically advanced, non-trivial models have not yet entered the sniper’s usual arsenal but have outlined the ways to develop modern weapons.
Modern sniper rifle
Let’s look at the basic requirements that a modern sniper rifle must meet. It should hit a live solid at a distance of 1000m. At the same time, it is advisable to hit the chest target at least 600m away on the first try and the belt target at 800m. Difficult weather conditions, poor visibility, barrel temperature, and the condition of internal parts should not significantly affect the accuracy and accuracy of shots. In this case, the sniper’s position should not be detected due to the reflection of the optics, clanking of the shutter, emissions of smoke, or fire from the muzzle. All these factors should strive for absolute secrecy and noiselessness. The shape and weight of the weapon must be adapted to the weight and body configuration of any shooter, both in summer and winter uniforms. The rifle must be comfortable to use in all weather conditions, from any position. Its weight and dimensions must ensure stability when firing and not be an obstacle for transportation. These requirements are essential, but more attention, as a rule, is paid to optical sights.
Parts of a modern sniper rifle
This is the hallmark by which a sniper rifle can be identified. The lenses are made of antireflection glass with a full multilayer coating, generally have a diameter of 40-50mm and a magnification of 4-40x. Typically, the space between the panes is filled with an inert gas to prevent fogging. The case is designed to be dust, shock, and water-resistant. A reticle inside the scope allows you to determine the distance to the target. There are several options for the reticle. For convenience, there is the possibility of lighting at dusk. Scopes are available with variable and fixed focal lengths. Most of the areas have additions in the form of systems for adjusting fire accuracy. It is a mistake to believe that the most potent and equipped scope will provide the best accuracy. For each distance and task, sights and additions are selected with a very high degree of selectivity. To mask the glare of the optics, the companies are equipped with special grids and have a cover.
Cartridge extraction mechanism
Rifles come in bolt-action and semi-automatic rifles. Both options have their advantages and disadvantages. Their application depends on the task at hand. Single shots from a concealed position suggest a longitudinal-trigger mechanism at long distances. And the defeat of several targets with a series of shots is semi-automatic. The longitudinal-sliding mechanism of the rifle has the highest quality of processing and prevents the slightest leakage of gases outside. Hand-fed rifles are more accurate than semi-automatic rifles and are more suitable for concealing the sniper’s position.
The trigger mechanism
The trigger mechanism is designed with a soft, smooth descent. But there are also two-stage triggers. Some models have a built-in safety lock in the motivation to prevent accidental firing, for example, when hitting the ground. Some trigger modifications are adjustable in the horizontal and vertical axes for complete adjustment comfort.
For the accuracy of shooting, the striker’s work plays an important role. The minimum response time for a sniper rifle is 0.0022 seconds. Therefore, for perfect performance, it is treated with special lubricants.
Thicker than a conventional rifle. ¾ inches wide — by far, not the densest. Most often, it is made of stainless steel or chromium-molybdenum alloy. It can be equipped with a series of milled longitudinal grooves to remove heat and gases and reduce the weight of the structure. They approach the processing of the barrel with special attention since the slightest irregularities can affect the ballistic qualities of the weapon. The barrel installation is usually floating. It connects at a single point near the receiver to improve firing accuracy. The barrels can be equipped with a silencer and have a muzzle brake or flash suppressor to hide the sniper’s position. The barrel cover is equipped with a system for attaching additional equipment.
The modern sniper rifle boasts a wide range of calibers. In service are: 5.45 × 39 mm, 5.56 × 45 mm NATO, 7.62 × 51 mm NATO, 7.62 × 54 mm, .300, .338, 12.7 × 99 mm NATO, 12.7 × 108 mm, 14.5 × 114 mm. Most rifles use .300, .338 calibers. But now, there is a tendency towards an increase in the range of destruction and, accordingly, an increase in caliber.
The quality of processing, filling, shape, weight, size, ballistic qualities of ammunition directly affects the accuracy of fire, flight trajectory, and range. Therefore, it is imperative to have the highest quality ammunition available.
In the recent past, stocks were made of wood. But moisture, temperature changes significantly influenced changes in the shape and integrity of the butt. This entailed a shift in the point of impact and negatively affected shooting quality. Now you can find options from aluminum alloy or polymer materials. These materials are practically unaffected by atmospheric changes. The current stock has a design that allows the user to adjust the length and weight of the store to fit his shape and height. In addition, it is possible to change the angle of inclination of a part of the stock relative to the axis of the muzzle. A stacked stock of several inserts, a variable thrust stock, or movable cheeks allows any shooter to customize the rifle for themselves. Some models have a folding stock that will enable you to pack the gun in a backpack or small case.
The rifle comes with a bipod and additional accessories.
The modern sniper rifle boasts several technological developments. But, de facto, most shooters prefer to use a very modest set, which will not distract their attention to unnecessary settings, add weight to their weapon, and interfere with movement. As before, the leading role is played by the sniper himself, his professional skills, and experience. And a first-class weapon complements his combat prowess and talent.